A bunion is a very visible bump in the big toe joint. The bump is actually a protruding bone heading towards the inside of the foot. If the movement goes on, overlapping of toes might happen. There is also Tailor's bunion or bunionette with similar manifestation, but the toe involve is the small one. There is swelling, inflammation, and soreness when one has a bunion. The etiology or risk factors for developing hallus valgus are familial genetical predisposition , pes planus, contracture of the achilles tendon, pointed shoes or tight fitting shoe ( improper footwear ) , joint hyper elasticity, secondary toe amputation and metatarses primus varus. Luckily this is a problem that almost always responds quickly to conservative treatment. Since the problem is too much pressure on the 2nd metatarsal head, the solution is to reduce this pressure. There are several ways to reduce pressure on the metatarsal. The most effective method is to use a custom orthotic that conforms extremely close to the arch of the foot. This type of orthotic, called a “ total contact orthotic ” has been shown in multiple studies to be the most effective method to reduce pressure under the ball of the foot ( list of articles available on this page ). As I was enjoying TELEVISION one day a paid announcement started discussing heel discomfort. It instantly caught my attention. I thought exactly what do I have to lose other than the pain. I got a set of "Barefoot Science" for my husband and me. I received the "Barefoot Science" in the mail and tried it right away. Step one of a four-step program was to take two weeks and then I could go to step two. When I got to step two my feet were in discomfort once again so I went back to step one till I felt great enough to proceed to step two. Another method is to purchase pedicure lotion from a spa, or extra-moisturizing lotion. You may have to try several lotions before finding an effective one. After you have selected a lotion, apply it liberally to your feet, if that is the affected area, leaving a generous coat. With the lotion on your feet, wear thick cotton socks. Then wear slippers over your socks; the goal is to keep your feet warm/hot, which will open the pores and aid the lotion in moisturizing your feet. Do this as often as necessary; results are usually seen after a time or two. When the arch of the foot collapses, the force of the foot on the ground causes the great toe to decrease in its range of motion. This is called “functional hallux limitus”. This simply means that the great toe cannot move through its normal range of motion as you push off the ground. Obviously when you push off, the toe needs to move somewhere. When the great toe cannot move straight up, the foot turns more to the side and you roll off the inside of the foot and great toe. This creates a force pushing the toe toward the other toes.